Question: How to create a correct error report for an "Extra" error?
Answer: Rules of "Extra" error report preparation
From time to time the program will indicate this or that error. To optimize error correction by our software developing team the error must be described in accordance with a number of rules.
All error reports should contain the following information:
1. A name, a date of the latest update and a version of a module where an error occurred (E.g., Eklektika module, version 1.0.2 of December 2003).
2. Circumstances under which an error occurred (E.g, when editing the hydraulic data of the OGPD-2 (Oil and Gas Production Department) or right after installing the latest update).
3. Screenshots (press Alt-PrintScreen to copy to a clipboard) of a correspondent window before and after the error occured (in *.tiff or *.bmp format, rar- or zip-archived).
4. A detailed textual description of how this error may be reproduced (E.g., open the "Extra" program, select "Analysis-Filters-Structure" in the main menu, press the "open object" button on the right of the data table, a window with an indication "the object is not found" appears ).
5. If the error is "floating", point out how often it occurs.
6. If the error is not followed by an error message yielded by the program, but is a logic error or a mismatch, please indicate additionally how you think the program should behave in this particular case (E.g., the filtration table data is not sorted out, though it should have been sorted in the order of inputting by user in the main window).
7. If the error does not apply to all data (for example, not to all shops, but to only one of them), please send us a dump at which we can reproduce this error.
8. Please also indicate an expected time of debugging (E.g., we can wait a week, or we can wait a day, or it should be debugged immediately because the work is stopped).
9. If an error requires an immediate debugging, please add as more details as possible in the description and send to us along with an empty dump of a current version of the program (if you send us a complete dump, there's no need in the empty one then).
10. Dumps should be made by an Oracle 8.1.7 client regardless of the version of your server. The fact is that we do not have servers of other versions and we won't be able to restore dumps of newer versions.
Question: We tried to add data on cluster 44 and make a calculation, but a 44 line is not shown in the table of results.
Answer: Send us the text of messages for the last calculation: select it with ‘trl-A, copy to a clipboard with ‘trl-‘ and paste to Word with ‘trl-V. Before that please check for any messages concerning cluster 44. Also check if any calculations were completed successfully.
Question: A calculation of an object for pipeline "tie-in point 14 - tie-in point 15" disappeared from where it used to be. Don't know what to do to get the results back.
Answer: Try to calculate once again if there is no calculation in the Calculation form - there is a possibility that you or somebody else have deleted your calculation results (if you login under your own user name and not under one user name for all users, other users will not be able to delete your results). There is also an opportunity that no pipe part has been calculated - it is possible when a RPM feature in an oil-gathering shop is "=Yes" in the general calculation data.
General recommendations: it is recommended to read the user's manual for the instructions on how to do the calculation, what fields are required and what is a RPM feature in the General shop data. Your RPM for the oil-gathering shop was set to "=Yes". In this case it is impossible to calculate an oil-gathering shop.
Question: I'm not sure if I attributed objects "tie-in point 14 - tie-in point 15" to the pipeline "tie-in point 14 - tie-in point 15" correctly when moving objects to pipelines.
Answer: It should be correct, but you have to check with the passport - if such a pipeline exists as an independent unit and consists of one object, then it's ok.
Question: How can objects "cluster 44 - tie-in point 11" and "tie-in point 11 - tie-in point 13" be moved to pipeline "cluster 44 - tie-in point 13"?
Answer: Select object "cluster 44 - tie-in point 11" with a cursor in the main window, press a blue arrowed button on the right of the list of objects, second from the top - a "move" prompt will appear. A list of pipelines will open up. Start typing "cluster 44" in the "filter" window - pipelines with such substring will be filtered out. Select a required one, press OK. Do the same with object "tie-in point 11 - tie-in point 13".
Question: I'm afraid of doing something wrong as there is no possibility to save a file before working with it and go back if something was done wrongly. It already happened once that all calculations were deleted by pressing a button accidentally. Fortunately, I had made a dump before that.
Answer: That's right, deletion leads to an irreparable loss of information. It is hardly avoidable. You can set the program to make dumps automatically, say, once a day. You can address this question to the program administrator.
Question: Can the "Extra" software package be expanded with other procedures of hydraulic calculation of oil-and-gas mixture transporting pipelines?
Answer: It can in case you provide us with such procedures or suggest where we can find them.
Question: Is there a choice of calculation procedures and a possibility of comparing the results received using different procedures?
Answer: There is. Please see the interface manual for a description of the process.
Question: Does the "Extra" program contain a database with the characteristics (including rheological) of reservoir fluids and their chemical composition for this or that deposit? If yes, is it open for augmenting?
Answer: The rheology is specified by the viscosity of pure oil, water and gas and the program calculates their mixtures. We are planning to expand the program with a possibility of inputting dependences of viscosity from water concentration (for example, research data) for an object or a shop and to use these dependences when necessary (optionally) instead of using empirical values defined in the program. It is not a very difficult task. Chemical composition of water is taken into account in the calculation of a corrosion prediction.
Question: We have problems with a calculation of rings:
Answer: We have detected an error on our part that occurs when calculating rings, if a ring does not have any adjacent parts with sources of liquid (as it happened in the example with a pipe part "well #4r - point 200" sent to us. We have developed a handler for such situations. If problem situations with calculation of rings occur please consider the following information. The program interrupts calculation when expenses are rearranged during an additional re-calculation of rings (originally, the data is divided equally between all objects outgoing from one node - tie-in point). If a defined discrepancy in general data is intentionally set to a bigger value (for example, 100 atm.), the program will skip the additional calculation of rings.
Question: What system of units is used in the program for inputting the initial data and outputting the calculated parameters? Is it possible to choose the system of units or do an automatic conversion of units during inputting and outputting of data?
Answer: The common system is used: pressure in atm., density in kg/m3, viscosity in mPa/s. Well, mostly all of them, excluding pressure in SI.
Question: Is influence of temperature conditions taken into consideration somehow in the calculations, or the calculations can be done only under conditions of isothermal flow of mixtures?
Answer: The calculations are done for each pipe part taking into consideration temperature variations by the Shukhov's formula. Density, viscosity and gas content are re-calculated.
Question: How and based on what procedures (normative documents) is the calculation done for pipelines transporting single-phase flows - either liquid (e.g. water) or gas?
Answer: When calculating single-phase flows complicated formulas used for three-phase flows are converted into typical ones. Individual calculations for water and gas can be introduced - calculation procedures for them are not too complicated compared to multiphase ones.
Question: Is cavitation margin taken into consideration in hydraulic calculations of pipelines transporting single-phase flows?
Question: Are there any restrictions in the calculation module (for example, for source data or for a network (number of calculated parts))?
Question: Are the procedures of hydraulic calculation for pipelines transporting multiphase media used in the calculation module applicable also for calculating pipelines transporting mixtures with water cut over 40?
Answer: Most likely, there are no restrictions on water cut. In the course of elaboration of this procedure a very wide range of water cut was tested (from 0 to 100).
Question: Are the procedures used in the program applicable for hydraulic calculation of pipelines transporting liquid-gas mixtures with a gas-oil ratio higher than 200 m3/m3? If yes, then how is the gas-oil ratio calculated and how is the calculation done when its value is lower or higher than the one indicated above?
Answer: A value of a gas-oil ratio is specified in the initial data of each liquid source. If it is not given in the source, then it is set equal to a "shop's gross gas-oil ratio". We didn't check the accuracy of calculations for different ranges.
For the oils with a high gas-oil ratio we will introduce in the program the 2nd Kornilov's procedure for such cases. Examination of hydraulic calculations for gas-oil ratio around 800 (Krasnodarneftegaz) showed high precision of the Kornilov's procedure. In the range of typical gas-oil ratios between 50 and 150 we give preference to the Medvedev's procedure as it gives more precise results.
Question: What data is a piping diagram based on? Is flowcharting possible without inputting the coordinates of points and nodes?
Answer: This possibility has been embodied since the April 2004 version of the program.
Question: What is the output format of calculation results?
Answer: A table. Any table can be exported to Excel.
Question: Does the program have modules of inter-format conversion of calculation results?
Answer: Any table can be exported to Excel and from Excel you can convert it to any format.
Question: Does the program create logs of hydraulic calculations (point by point) with recommendations on correction (increase or decrease) of this or that parameter at a particular part depending on a result required?
Answer: The program only gives the results. Never saw recommendations based on which it would be possible to do it for the entire system, not for one object only.
Question: Does the program issue recommendations for values of parameters which provide anti-corrosive regime for a mixture flow based on a calculation done?
Answer: The program shows the current state of a calculation. It is possible to switch a pipeline to a different mode by changing diameters. The table shows critical speeds of switching from one mode to another.
Question: Is it possible to do a calculation of and get a recommendation on a pipe wall thickness selection?
Answer: This is embodied as a calculation of a pipe diameter screening based on strength characteristics of the material used and a pressure rating. Strength calculation formulas are from GD 39-132-94. Besides, strength calculation is a feature of the "Extra-Calc" engineering calculator built in every window of the "Extra" program.
Question: Are calculated values of pipe diameters tied to standard values?
Answer: Diameters are not calculated - losses are calculated. Since it is a system of pipelines which is being calculated, combinations of diameters can vary. Such calculation can be done for one object, but I'm not sure if it can be done for a system, and if there is any point in it. It could be done if there were well-grounded recommendations of taking any parameter as a basis (for example, specific losses <0.5 atm/km or velocity 0.8:1.0 m/sec), but I haven't seen any so far.
Question: Are there any recommendations on how this program or calculation procedures used in it should be used by the assessing organizations? Are calculation procedures used in the program recommended by any normative documents?
Answer: All calculations are taken from GD. It's another matter that most of them are not valid anymore. Anyway, there are no other calculations. The Kornilov's procedure (one of the hydraulic procedures) is used in GD 39-3-1034-84 "Guiding manual for designing and maintenance of single-pipe gathering systems". There is a reference to it in GD 39-132-94 as to one of the oilfield pipeline calculation procedures.
Question: How much time does it take to learn how to operate the "Extra" software package?
Answer: Usually it takes one day (one lecture and practice) to grasp the basics.
Question: Do design organizations work with the program? If yes, please specify?
Answer: PechorNIPIneft bought "Extra 4.4" from us. Sibneft is about to switch its design institute to "Extra".
Question: Please, could you advise on the possibility of a closer familiarization with the program. Is it possible to send to you a "Sibneftegazproekt" institute engineer for this purpose?
Answer: Sure. User instructions are available on open access at this website.
Question: Please explain the advantages of using a strict designation of object names. Isn't it possible to use the name system, which the users of the pipeline calculation program were accustomed to and in which there was no strict designation of object names, and strict names were inputted as object indexes?
Answer: We met these wishes and added "object indexes" for calculation to our program structure. But we strongly recommend not to use them. If we give up on the rule "not to designate identical points with different names" it will cause the following inconveniences:
1. When looking up a diagram one node will have two (or more) footnotes with its names, which will cause cluttering the diagram. Errors in name interpretation can arise if a point has two names. Having a look at the diagram, one user will say that the accident took place at object "tie-in point, cluster 2 - tie-in point, cluster 1", while another user will designate this object as "tie-in point, cluster 2 - oil-gathering pipeline tie-in point, cluster 40".
2. A lot of errors will arise when forming a diagram because pipe parts with the same coordinates have different names and it will be almost impossible to determine which of the errors are actually caused by an incorrect input (e.g. "point1" and "point 1"), and which are intentional.
3. Names (not indexes) will be outputted in the results of hydraulic calculation. Therefore it will cause inconvenience for those who are not familiar with a network structure while analyzing calculations of flow directions, as identical denominations of points in object names do not mean that it is the same point. And, vice versa, the same point does not necessarily have the same name.
4. It is necessary to maintain an additional system of denomination of the same points, supplementary to a general one. Why do double work when it is better to confine to one name as it was initially provided in "Extra" and hasn't invited any questions up till now.
Question: One same index can be found in two or more different tables. Following are the examples:
Answer: Indeed, but it is related to a multivariety of situations:
Geometrical dimensions for an object route are inputted at three locations in the program: In "Profile", "Materials" and "Accidents" tables. In the "Profile" table geometrical dimensions are inputted for the hydraulic calculation. In the general case they can disagree with the real dimensions as they are particularly but not exclusively intended for check-up calculations aimed at the selection of diameters. In the "Materials" table the real current dimensions are inputted for certification. They are also used when forming "Sorting" menu tables. In the "Accidents" table accident location data collected at the time of accident are inputted. These data, in their turn, can disagree with the materials inputted in the table due to an incorrect representation of information or an input error. But for calculating the corrosion rate only the real pipe wall thickness is important. Maybe it happens rarely, but it happens anyway, and that's why automatism is unreasonable here. In all such cases there is a possibility of transferring the data from the "Materials" table by using the "=" button.
The table for materials in the Pipeline coincides with the table for materials in the object, as it is the same table. It is possible to see and edit through the Pipeline the summary table for Materials for all Pipeline objects.
Question: Next inspection date is not calculated in the "Inspection" report.
Answer: It can happen if pressure values are not inputted for objects of a "Booster pump station : - :" type. In this case the program takes them from the General shop data (not specified). You will have to send us a screenshot of an Object-Hydraulics form of any booster pump station where the Pressure data are inputted; a screenshot of a Shop data from an Analysis-Calculation form; an Excel table of Calculation settings (right mouse button - export to Excel).
Question: Does the program consider local resistance values?
Answer: It does, but for the entire object - as a sum of coefficients at the object. We will add such an option for separate pipe parts later.
Question: Based on what principle are the calculation tables formed (the ones that are exported to Excel)?
Answer: Based on a calculated "shop". There is an option of selecting either all or one of the shop's pipelines.
Question: The density is 482 after the calculation. I do not trust this figure because in my case the product is a degassed oil with a volume weight around 900 kg/m3.
Answer: Try removing a default gas-oil ratio from the general calculation data for this shop. The density value will most likely come to a showing you are talking about.
Question: Not all pages are displayed when forming pipeline passports. I understand that the pages are not displayed because they are not filled out, but I need all 18 pages to be formed no matter they are filled out or not. Is it possible to do so?
Answer: It has been done already. This feature will become available with the next update by the end of the year.
Question: When hydraulic calculation is done on some objects of the pipeline network, negative final pressure values are outputted in the results. Why does it happen?
Answer: The calculation in the program is direct. Therefore, if a pressure insufficient for pumping of the piping system is specified on liquid and pressure sources, the program accepts it as equal to the "average pressure" from the "Shop data" in order not to interrupt calculation in case of negative initial pressure (IP) at some pipe part, and finds pressure losses (PL) at an object. Final pressure (FP) at an object is accepted as equal to FP=IP-PL. It is done in order not to interrupt the calculation of an object tree. Then, a reverse calculation should be done after specifying "final pressure is set" for the terminal objects. Eventually, we get pressures at liquid sources required by a calculation for pumping of this system (with pipeline geometrical parameters specified).
The Kornilov's and the Medvedev's procedures are different, and you have to choose the one that is in your case closer to the real data. Both of them are semiempirical. We prefer the Medvedev's procedure as it provides more precise results in the general case. The last version of the program (you must have installed it already) also contains the Kornilov's calculation procedure for liquid-gas mixtures with high gas content (a corresponding box is ticked off and the margins of gas content for this calculation are set).
Question: I installed Oracle 8.1.7 on Pentium 4, installation was completed successfully, but in the end it opened a lot of windows with an error message "CANNOT DOWNLOAD JAVA.EXE". I close them, install "Extra" and everything works fine. After rebooting the computer the error message appears again (in great numbers), connection to the database is lost again and another error message appears saying ORACLE NOT AVAILABLE and SHARED MEMORY REALM DOES NOT EXIST. Again, I create a database through DBA and download "Extra" and it works ok, but after rebooting it's the same story again. Tried various remedies: installed "jre-1_1_8_008-win-I" (update from sun.com), renamed dll's while downloading Oracle - everything I could find on the Internet. Nothing helps. Could you please advise on what can be done in this respect?
Answer: Download the "Extra" administrator's instruction from www.monicor.ru, section "Add-ons for installation of an Oracle 8i server on a PC with a Pentium-4 processor". Standard installation version will not install on a computer with a Pentium-4 processor and some Celeron models. A serial of steps is the following:
1) Download and install JRE1.2 from http://java.sun.com/products/ jdk/1.2/jre/download-windows.html
2) Find a symcjit.dll file.
3) Copy all info from an "Oracle" installation CD to your hard drive. You will need about 3 Gb of drive space because there are a lot of files and a fragmentation will be done.
4) Replace the file d:\OraServ816\stage\Components\oracle.swd.jre\1.1.7.xx\1\DataFiles\Expanded\jre\win32\bin\symcjit.dll with a new one.
5) Add to the path (control panel - system - variables - PATH) the value of C:\ProgramFiles\JavaSoft\JRE\1.2\bin\classic, or to the path to which JRE was installed.
6) Launch an Oracle installer from your hard drive.
Question: Why a dump was 22 Mb originally, and now reduced to 15 Mb?
Answer: It doesn't contain program documentation and help files anymore.
Question: If a client is placed on a desktop, it is not updated.
Answer: It will be updated, if you place a shortcut on the desktop instead of the client itself.
Question: I want to call your attention one more time to the fact that Oracle is non-case-sensitive for commands. For example, we have a user u10401 who is to be entered as U10401, which is wrong: (GIS users)
Answer: On the contrary, it is case-sensitive, and we take it into account. In order to register a user with a username u10401 you have to execute 'create user "u10401"'. If you execute it the following way: 'create user u10401', then user U10401 will be created instead of u10401.
Question: Certificates for pipelines do not contain data on pipe leaks.
Answer: According to GD 39-132-94 this form is not included in the list of required for Passport. Data on pipe leaks can be obtained in alternative forms: Non-Classified Failure Report, Accident-Caused Failure Report (Addendum 17 to GD 39-132-94), Non-Classified Failure Log (Addendum 16 to GD 39-132-94), from a process flowsheet and elsewhere.
Question: The program does not do a hydraulic calculation for individual objects.
Answer: We are planning to add this feature. Solutions for now: 1. The program calculates all possible objects assembled in one "Shop" - the time loss seems insignificant, comparing the time spent on calculation of an individual object and an entire shop; 2. Using object "cloning and copying" you can create a special "shop" for test calculations where you can calculate separate objects.
Question: Pipeline image (diagrams) - how to draw?
a) Export the data from the existing GIS - were about to finish exporting from MAPinfo for Nyagan;
b) Input the coordinates manually (not convenient);
c) beginning from April 2004 lines and other map layers can be inputted directly from "Extra".
Question: We need to decide on the structure: division by shops or by deposits?
Answer: Division is by shops because it is an administrative division and the program is aimed at administrative accounting of pipelines as well. For hydraulic calculations there are forms for inputting information which is common for all pipes of a deposit. Calculation results for deposits can be outputted separately. Also, it is possible to create Summary tables for one or several deposits using filter settings, and to query several filter tables. Filter options can be broadened.
Question: An error message "Floating point division by zero" appears during a hydraulic calculation.
Answer: It is a division by zero. You'll have to send us the results, messages, check if the data is inputted in the "Shop data". Must be this, but needs checking.
Question: Will pipeline coordinates data appear (digitization) and what can we do for now?
a) Wait until the surveyors input the data, then export and divide by objects - export of vector layers from mif-files is available since April;
b) input manually after drawing a diagram and specifying the coordinates;
c) since April 2004 start inputting the data by yourself to GIS-Extra. However, it would be more convenient if the surveyors have already inputted the topographic base in MAPinfo - there will be no trouble with transferring it to "Extra".
Question: When filling in the "Pipeline" - "Responsible personnel" section all data are to be inputted manually, though they are similar within the 1st shop (deposit). Why not do autocomplete (copying)?
Answer: We have taken note of your request and will implement it. However, in the general case the data is different and it is impossible to do one "Responsible personnel" table for one shop. For the time being, if there is too much information, ask your DB administrators to try doing it by means of Oracle. The following should be mentioned: what data and to what shop it should be inputted in the "Responsible personnel" table.
Question: How important is the order of inputting of the information?
Answer: Not important.
Question: How are the dictionaries edited?
Answer: We've developed the "Extra" program introduction regulations - apparently it has not reached you yet. I will discuss this question with the curators and send it to you by email. Approval procedure is recommended before editing a dictionary (having taken into consideration the importance of the problem and the uniqueness of the vocabulary for creation of a corporative DB we've created a module for DB unification into a corporative one).
1) Only 7 dictionaries out of 64 can be non-corporative.
2) If a necessity of replenishing a corporative dictionary arises at some enterprise, the proponent of this replenishment has to undergo a certain procedure in order to get approval of specialists and to introduce it absolutely identically into all dictionaries of subsidiary enterprises:
- The proponent addresses a head of a senior department, which is in charge of pipeline maintenance (PMD), by email with a request to add to a dictionary (name of the dictionary) an additional meaning (new for this dictionary) in view of the fact that such meaning is missing in the list of reference meanings;
- The head of the PMD, which is the proponent of amendments, makes changes and informs the heads of all PMD of subsidiary enterprises about the amendments, indicating the name of the dictionary and the additional meaning (new reference meaning);
- The PMD heads of subsidiary enterprises must introduce alterations in the "Extra" database dictionaries. The alterations must be absolutely identical.
Question: The priority in the configuration of materials is set to steel 10. The cost of pipes produced of steel 20 and other materials is not calculated: "Matchable material, diameter or wall thickness not found: Steel 0-3750, diameter 114, wall 4.5, material Steel 20".
Answer: Enter this dimension-type for this material and its cost in the Economy settings.
Question: Configuration editing. I add a required diameter to the forms "cost of 1 km", "construction and installation work"; but for some reason this diameter does not appear in the resulting form "pipe cost".
Answer: Cost of disassembling has not been inputted.
Question: Configuration editing. I enter different materials for each variant (steel 10, steel 20, steel 09GSF) in the "Variants average values" form, but steel 10 is shown for each variant in the calculation.
Answer: I double checked it - I can see different materials. Only those materials are not displayed, for which the program couldn't do the calculation, because their data was missing in the settings.
Question: Is it possible to install the "Extra" program on Oracle?
Answer: It is, but we recommend to use version 8.1.7 (8i) because, firstly, we have replication for Oracle-8i; secondly, you'll need at least one 8i client to make dumps (empty, for preparation of a patch for re-conversion) for updates. We can't restore dumps for Oracle-9 because we all work with version 8.1.7; thirdly, the program is tested on Oracle 8i.
Question: What is the accuracy margin for hydraulic calculations?
Answer: For three-phase flows the accuracy of 30 per cent is considered acceptable under the stipulation that the initial data was inputted correctly.
Question: Is it possible to solve the following production questions with the help of the "Extra" program?
Answer: Through Filters with inquiries; then export the received tables to Excel where it is possible to calculate all data. There are also security reports (also through Filters). E.g.: "Accidents at a linear pipeline portion by months", "Inventory information by shop", "Pipeline length by diameters", "State of process pipelines", "Pipeline network structure", "Technical state of pipeline system".
Question: A question about importing from OIS. We followed your advice and did an import with "Enterprise=1" in the ini-file, which corresponds to an enterprise for importing from OIS TNK-Orenburg. The result was the same as with "Enterprise=0". It creates gathering unit - clusters, direction - flowlines, pipeline - wells of cluster 0, and all objects-wells are downloaded in one pipeline of cluster 0. Is it possible that we are doing something wrong?
Answer: Seemingly, cluster numbers (Group Metering Station), which the wells belong to, are not entered in OIS and that's why they are all linked up to one pipeline "wells - cluster 0". Try entering several values. What concerns naming as "GMS-XXX" instead of "cluster-XXX" when "Enterprise=1 - we will check it and correct.
Variants of export when "Enterprise=0 and 1" should be different. In case of (0) all well discharge lines working for one cluster (GMS) should go to one pipeline. In case of Orenburgneft each discharge line should go to a separate correspondent pipeline.
Question: Filter by Status: The status is taken from "object - common - status change". When converting the "Pipeline" database the field "object - common - status change" was filled automatically and the commissioning date and the status from "object - route - materials - pipes and profiled parts" was duplicated. When inputting new objects, does the user have to input the commissioning date and the status in "object-route-materials-pipes and profiled details" and in order to have an opportunity to choose by status, to "object-common-status change"?
Answer: The user can input the object status directly through "object-common-status change", (and to transfer this status to Route - Materials - it is ticked by default), without entering Route - Materials.
Question: If the data is selected through the Filter and the Status is not inputted in "object - common - status change", when active pipes should be selected, they can not be selected by an "Active" feature. If a report should cover only active pipes, and the condition is not inputted in "object - common - status change" these pipes will not enter the report.
Answer: Objects with uninputted statuses are equated with active ones during calculation, and a query should be done in the Filter to select active pipes (wherever status is not inputted, it is an active pipe); the query should contain two conditions: object - status "=" "active", object - status "empty" (i.e. not specified).